Friday, January 15, 2016

Code Snippet: A redirection service in Go

Recently, I've been very fascinated with Go. That language is so easy to write and as it's statically compiled, less changes of bugs too. So, I keep finding excuses to write Go code.

I needed a service to redirect clients which runs inside a docker container. One obvious option is to run apache inside docker with proper configs but as I enjoy writing Go code, I wrote this really simple program that acts like a redirection service. Later, I just copy this compiled binary into docker container.
  • Specify location and port from command-line to set the location to redirect to. 
  • Each client is handled in it's own goroutine, that means, it's scalable. 
  • That few lines of code are so elegant. I love Go.

Code:- ( )

package main

import (


// redirect function does the redirection
func redirect(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request, location string) {
	w.Header().Set("Location", location)

func main() {
	// Handle cmdline arguments
	location := flag.String("location", "localhost:80", "The URI at which the ")
	port := flag.Int("port", 80, "Port at which the http server binds to")

	// Validate
	isURL := govalidator.IsURL(*location)
	if !isURL {
		log.Fatal("The location you provided is not a valid URL")

	log.Printf("Starting web server... Location: %s, Port: %d", *location, *port)

	http.HandleFunc("/", func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
		redirect(w, r, *location)

	err := http.ListenAndServe(":"+strconv.Itoa(*port), nil)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatal("Error starting web server. ", err)


% ./redirection_service -h
Usage of ./redirection_service:
  -location string
        The URI at which the  (default "localhost:80")
  -port int
        Port at which the http server binds to (default 80)
% sudo ./redirection_service -location=
2016/01/15 09:33:54 Starting web server... Location:, Port: 80

Tuesday, January 12, 2016

Code Snippet: Fetch certificate information from a live endpoint in Go

I generally try to post snippets on my blog that I don't find on a Google search. This is like one of those snippets.

This sample code fetches the time to expiry for a certificate that's currently deployed at a live endpoint. 


package main

import (

func main() {
 // Parse cmdline arguments using flag package
 server := flag.String("server", "", "Server to ping")
 port := flag.Uint("port", 443, "Port that has TLS")

 conn, err := tls.Dial("tcp", fmt.Sprintf("%s:%d", *server, *port), &tls.Config{})
 if err != nil {
  panic("failed to connect: " + err.Error())

 // Get the ConnectionState struct as that's the one which gives us x509.Certificate struct
 connectionState := conn.ConnectionState()

 fmt.Printf("Time to expiry for the certificate: %v\n", connectionState.PeerCertificates[0].NotAfter.Sub(time.Now()))


% ./ssl_certs -h
Usage of ./ssl_certs:
  -port uint
     Port that has TLS (default 443)
  -server string
     Server to ping (default "")
% ./ssl_certs
Time to expiry for the certificate: 1843h21m3.857177591s

Thursday, July 24, 2014

Accessing individual files from a "dd backup" of a encrypted hard disk/partition

Whenever I do something risky with my laptop like resizing partitions, I always do a full backup of the hard disk by running:
dd if=/dev/sda of=/path/to/backup/directory/image.img bs=4M
from a live archlinux USB pendrive.

Restoring from a backup like that is super easy.
dd if=/path/to/backup/directory/image.img of=/dev/sda bs=4M
Works perfectly. Every single time. Except licensing issues with Windows installation if you've a dual boot but WHO CARES!!!

In my case, one of my partitions /dev/sda5 is LUKS encrypted & if I want to access files from that partition using the .img file, things are not very straight forward but easy. For reference, this is what you'll typically do.
➜ 0 /home/shadyabhi [ 9:40PM] % sudo modprobe loop
➜ 0 /home/shadyabhi [ 9:40PM] % sudo losetup -v /dev/loop0 ./official_laptop_backup.img
➜ 0 /home/shadyabhi [ 9:40PM] % ls /dev/loop0*
➜ 0 /home/shadyabhi [ 9:40PM] % sudo partprobe /dev/loop0
➜ 0 /home/shadyabhi [ 9:40PM] % ls /dev/loop0*
/dev/loop0  /dev/loop0p1  /dev/loop0p2  /dev/loop0p5  /dev/loop0p6  /dev/loop0p7
➜ 0 /home/shadyabhi [ 9:40PM] % sudo mkdir /mnt/my_encrypted_partition
➜ 0 /home/shadyabhi [ 9:40PM] % sudo cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/loop0p5 encrypted_partition
Enter passphrase for /dev/loop0p5: 
➜ 0 /home/shadyabhi [ 9:40PM] % sudo mount /dev/mapper/encrypted_partition /mnt/my_encrypted_partition 
➜ 0 /home/shadyabhi [ 9:40PM] % sudo ls /mnt/my_encrypted_partition | wc -l
➜ 0 /home/shadyabhi [ 9:41PM] % 

Saturday, June 28, 2014

veth pair: How to know what interfaces are connected by a veth pair?

Here is a quick one. Couldn't find a direct solution on Google.

You can find out what's the peer of a interface by issuing the command:
[root@compute-1 ~]# sudo ethtool -S int-br-ex
NIC statistics:
     peer_ifindex: 55
[root@compute-1 ~]# ip link  | grep 55:
    link/ether c6:5f:55:82:20:72 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
55: phy-br-ex:  mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
[root@compute-1 ~]#
So, you can easily find out that int-br-ex and phy-br-ex are peer to each other, that means they are connected via veth pair. To find out what all veth pairs are present in your system:
[root@compute-1 ~]# ip -d link show
.... output omitted ...
55: phy-br-ex:  mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 52:92:8e:3f:6e:f8 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
56: int-br-ex:  mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether d6:3b:77:c0:70:4f brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
[root@compute-1 ~]#
While using "-d" option, ip command gives you a little more details about the interface. In this case, it tells you whether a interface is part of a veth pair.

Saturday, June 14, 2014

Use j,k keys to navigate clipboard history in parcellite or all gtk applications

I'm a parcellite clipboard manager fan. It's clean, it's simple and it's lightweight. I use it all the time to search my clipboard history and select past clipboard entries.

But, I always used to get annoyed by having to use "Up", "Down" arrow keys to navigate the GtkMenuShell. A simple "j", "k" will be so much better. To do that, simply add the below snippet in ~/.gtkrc-2.0:
binding "gtk-binding-menu" {
    bind "j" { "move-current" (next) }
    bind "k" { "move-current" (prev) }
    bind "h" { "move-current" (parent) }
    bind "l" { "move-current" (child) }
class "GtkMenuShell" binding "gtk-binding-menu"
This lets you use "vim-like" keys in all gtk programs (for menus) including parcellite :)